First of all read the question and prepare to answer this question and not the one you have revised for
Strategy : essay writing and preparation
Reconnaissance and unpacking the question
Unpack the question, underline all key words and check their definitions. Even seemingly innocuous terms such as 'might' should be assessed - does that mean there is the alternative option of 'might not'? (Understand the purpose of word in the sentence *and why the questioner used the word in that way)
Continue to deconstruct the question - what is the counter argument?
When we see critically examine or similar constructs we are being asked to provide an alternative or being asked to probe for weaknesses and counter argument?
What assumptions are being made behind the question?
Writing the assignment
Read broadly at first, make notes of key things that will be important for the essay, but leave a column on the side so you can note counter arguments or alternative evidence that you find as your read.
If you are not sure about an article, read the abstract, introduction and conclusion - that is often enough.
If you see a quote that says it all make a very careful reference of the page number - it's a devil of a job later finding the right page.
Ensure your reading includes some very up to date articles (and always focus your reading on peer reviewed journal articles - use only sparingly the trade press like the HBR or Sloan Management Review they are not rigorous enough).
Prepare a mind-map of all you think is relevant, then jot down potential order to be discussed (and be firm, cut out things that might not be relevant).
Focus - on the specific question! The most common reason for failure is answering the wrong question answer this question - not everything you know about the subject.
Summarise readings, don't describe, use to answer question and be concise (use references to support).
Use evidence and examples, (not personal experience) but again, be concise - one or two sentences and a reference not paragraphs of description.
Check again that all your material is relevant, helps answer the question, sounds logical and minimises use of adverbs or covering words.
After each paragraph, ask yourself how this is relevant to the question, and say so explicitly.
At the end of a section state explicitly how what you have said answers the question. ( I have shown that ...)
Whenever you discuss ideas, concepts, or research - make sure you also analyse these, tell us what the assumptions are, problems with the method, counter-evidence you have found etc., be critical/analytical.
Avoid any sweeping generalisations!
Post Writing Review
Put aside for a week or two if possible and then come back to it - allows you to see it afresh.
Read the marking guidelines, look at the example essays, and look also at the marking sheet - they can be very explicit about the need to define terms, develop an argument, take a critical approach etc.
Get your partner to read it through - it is better to have someone unfamiliar with the subject to check for psychobabble
Review this pre-Flight checklist before you submit the essay:
Have I answered this question - in an ongoing manner?
If it is in two parts, have I answered both?
Have I defined all key terms?
Have I really unpacked the question, considered alternative arguments?
Have I covered all the main aspects?
Have I arranged the material logically?
Is there a clear introduction saying how I will answer the question, flow between paragraphs, clear conclusion?
Is each main point supported by examples, evidence, and argument?
Have I acknowledged all sources and references, including page numbers for direct quotes?
Have I written plainly and simply, and sorted out clumsy or muddled phrasing?
Have I presented a convincing case which I could justify in a discussion?
if a question comes in two parts I would construct the essay around the two parts (rather than trying to mix the answer) This leads the marker through the question in a logical flow - what we are going to say, say it, what have we said.
Set down a plan in the introduction (First I am going to this , then I am going to do that, and close by considering ...) then stick to the plan.
Stick to the mainstream theory - and use any course materials. Be wary of bringing in theory from outside the bounds of your course.
If we are only doing a 3000 word essay and the essay is literature based a rough guide would be: Intro 400, first part 1000, second part 1000 conclusion 600.
Don't be too rigid with this guideline but use it to make sure you answer all the elements of the question in enough depth.
Rough guide for an academic essay at Masters level I like to see about 10 references per 1000 words.
Stick to this outline strategy and you will always be up there in the Stars - good luck
See more useful material at the Work Psychology Forum at bizface.co.uk