Different professors teaching different courses will assess your class essays in different ways. Some will probably give you a clear breakdown of the grading, while others will keep the evaluation criteria under wraps. Whatever they're standards or their way of assessing your essay, you need to write one that will surely make them approved you work.
For the most part, though, majority of teachers will appraise your essay under a few standard criteria, namely:
How well you answered the question. Did you answer the essay question correctly? Surprisingly enough, most students fail to understand the actual questions asked in the essay, writing page after page of content that tackles entirely different issues altogether.
How clear and organized your writing style is. Is your essay clearly-written, with well-organized ideas? Does it illustrate your thoughts in a way that your target audience will understand? Is it properly edited and sufficiently proofread? It goes without saying, an academic writing software can benefit you greatly on this end.
How well you analyzed the issues. Were you able to address all issues involved in the topic? How accurate was your analysis of each, especially in relation to your main thesis.
How well you understood and interpreted the source materials. Is your understanding of the source material accurate? Do you interpret them in a reasonable manner for your purposes?
How robust your references are. A typical 5,000 word essay should have at least 15 reference sources. While you can have less, it gives readers the impression that you didn't exhaust the range of available materials for constructing your work.